foods

Diet sodas may be tied to stroke, dementia risk

http://www.cnn.com/2017/04/20/health/diet-sodas-stroke-dementia-study/

(CNN) Gulping down an artificially sweetened beverage not only may be associated with health risks for your body, but also possibly your brain, a new study suggests.

Artificially sweetened drinks, such as diet sodas, were tied to a higher risk of stroke and dementia in the study, which published in the American Heart Association’s journal Stroke on Thursday.
The study sheds light only on an association, as the researchers were unable to determine an actual cause-and-effect relationship between sipping artificially sweetened drinks and an increased risk for stroke and dementia. Therefore, some experts caution that the findings should be interpreted carefully.
No connection was found between those health risks and other sugary beverages, such as sugar-sweetened sodas, fruit juice and fruit drinks.
Are diet sodas dangerous to your health?

Are diet sodas dangerous to your health? 04:19
“We have little data on the health effects of diet drinks and this is problematic because diet drinks are popular amongst the general population,” said Matthew Pase, a senior research fellow in the department of neurology at Boston University School of Medicine and lead author of the new study.
“More research is needed to study the health effects of diet drinks so that consumers can make informed choices concerning their health,” he said.
The new study involved data on 2,888 adults older than 45 and 1,484 adults older than 60 from the town of Framingham, Massachusetts. The data came from the Framingham Heart Study, a project of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Boston University.
In the older-than-45 group, the researchers measured for stroke and in the older-than-60 group, they measured for dementia.
“The sample sizes are different because we studied people of different ages,” Pase said. “Dementia is rare in people under the age of 60 and so we focused only on those aged over 60 years for dementia. Similarly, stroke is rare in people aged under 45 and so we focused on people older than age 45 for stroke.”
How diet soda confuses your body

How diet soda confuses your body 01:52
The researchers analyzed how many sugary beverages and artificially sweetened soft drinks each person in the two different age groups drank, at different time points, between 1991 and 2001. Then, they compared that with how many people suffered stroke or dementia over the next 10 years.
Compared to never drinking artificially sweetened soft drinks, those who drank one a day were almost three times as likely to have an ischemic stroke, caused by blocked blood vessels, the researchers found.
They also found that those who drank one a day were nearly three times as likely to be diagnosed with dementia.
Those who drank one to six artificially sweetened beverages a week were 2.6 times as likely to experience an ischemic stroke but were no more likely to develop dementia, Pase said.
“So, it was not surprising to see that diet soda intake was associated with stroke and dementia. I was surprised that sugary beverage intake was not associated with either the risks of stroke or dementia because sugary beverages are known to be unhealthy,” Pase said.
Unhealthy sugary drinks

In response, Lauren Kane, a spokeswoman for the American Beverage Association, issued a statement from the group that said low-calorie sweeteners found in beverages have been proven safe by worldwide government safety authorities.
“The FDA, World Health Organization, European Food Safety Authority and others have extensively reviewed low-calorie sweeteners and have all reached the same conclusion — they are safe for consumption,” the statement said.
“While we respect the mission of these organizations to help prevent conditions like stroke and dementia, the authors of this study acknowledge that their conclusions do not — and cannot — prove cause and effect. And according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), many risk factors can increase an individual’s likelihood of developing stroke and dementia including age, hypertension, diabetes and genetics. NIH does not mention zero calorie sweeteners as a risk factor,” the statement said. “America’s beverage companies support and encourage balanced lifestyles by providing people with a range of beverage choices — with and without calories and sugar — so they can choose the beverage that is right for them.”
Separate previous studies have shown an association between the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and adverse health effects, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, heart disease, stroke, and possibly even heart failure.
“This article provides further evidence though on artificially sweetened beverages and their possible effects on vascular health, including stroke and dementia,” said Dr. Ralph Sacco, professor and chair of neurology at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, about the new study.
Sacco was a co-author of an editorial published alongside the study in the journal Stroke on Thursday.
“We believe the pathways of which artificially sweetened beverages would affect the brain are probably through vascular mechanisms,” Sacco said.
“When the authors controlled for hypertension and diabetes and obesity the effects diminish, which implies that some of the effects of artificially sweetened beverages could still be going through a vascular pathway,” he said about the new study. “Many strokes are caused by hardening of arteries; and the risk of dementia is also increased by the hardening of arteries in large and small vessels. So, I believe the mechanisms may be through vascular disease, though we can’t prove it.”
Heather Snyder, senior director of medical and scientific operations at the Alzheimer’s Association, called the new study “a piece of a larger puzzle” when it comes to better understanding how your diet and behaviors impact your brain.
“It’s actually really more of your overall diet and overall lifestyle that is linked to cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk, and we do know that heart disease and diabetes are linked to an increased risk of dementia,” said Snyder, who was not involved in the new study.
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“We know that sugary and artificially sweetened beverages are not great for us. This study adds strength to that, and also says they may not be great for your brain, specifically,” she said. “There are alternatives — things we can all do everyday to keep our brains and our bodies as healthy as we can as we age.” Alternatives such as regular cardiovascular exercise that elevates heart rate and increases blood flow and doing puzzles and games to activate and challenge the mind. These are recommendations from the Alzheimer’s Associations list of 10 lifestyle habits to reduce risk of cognitive decline.
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Can These Foods Keep Mosquitos at Bay?

Summertime is upon us once again, which means beach days, outdoor concerts, and of course, mosquitoes. With the threat of Zika and other mosquito-borne illnesses looming—and the usual annoyance of bug bites—we took a look at some of the food-based options for warding off those annoying insects. Below are four foods said to naturally ward off summer’s biggest party crashers.

Grapefruit

Nootkatone, found in grapefruit and other citrus fruit, is effective against mosquitoes, ticks and bed bugs, so consuming citrus fruits or dousing your body in grapefruit essential oil may keep those pesky critters at bay during the summer months. The compound nootkatone “is nongreasy, dries very quickly, and it has a very pleasant, citrus-y grapefruit odor to it,” CDC scientist Marc Dolan said in an interview with NPR.

A word of caution, though: grapefruit and other citrus can interact with some medications, including erythromycin, diazepam and lovastatin, causing potentially dangerous adverse reactions.

Tomatos

A North Carolina State University study from 2002 found IBI-246, a substance produced by tomatoes, repels mosquitoes more effectively than DEET (N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide), the most common toxic chemical used to ward off the insects.

Dr. Michael Roe said the fruit could be used in commercial insect repellents. ”What this means is that the toxicology has been done, which is a big step toward commercialization,” Roe said. “It’s found in tomatoes, it’s natural, it can be obtained organically, it’s safe and it’s at least as effective as DEET; all features that the public would want for a new-generation insect repellent.”

Garlic

Vampires aren’t the only bloodsuckers deterred by the pungent scent of garlic. An amino acid present in garlic bulbs converts into allicin in the blood, which helps deter bugs. Meanwhile, as the Examiner reports, “sulfur compounds in the breath and on the skin after eating garlic help keep mosquitoes away.”

Onions

While scientific evidence of onion’s effectiveness against mosquitoes is scarce, according to the National Gardening Association, onions repel cabbage moths, carrot flies and even moles, as well as rust flies. Alderleaf Wilderness College (a speciality school for “tradiitional ecological knowledge“) notes, “diets high in … onions have been noted to help reduce the attraction of mosquitoes.”

In addition to loading up on the aforementioned foods, people wishing to avoid annoying bug bites should stay away from foods high in potassium, salt and lactic acid, such as bananas, avocados and dried fruit. And becasue mosquitoes are very attracted to warm temperatures, if you’re hanging outside at an evening barbecue, your best bet is to lay off the alcohol which raises your body temperature and makes you much more attractive to warmth-seeking insects.

Avoid these foods from China: they are filled with plastic, pesticides and cancer-causing chemicals

(NaturalNews) Generally speaking, quality control and employee health are not issues that Chinese industry or the Chinese government are overly concerned about, especially in comparison to U.S. and European standards. But there are some foods and products you should definitely avoid completely if they are produced by the Asian giant.

That said, a lot of food consumed throughout North America and Europe is nevertheless imported from China, but that comes at an additional cost over and above the price on the products. The food awareness site, Why Dont You Try This, reported that some “food” companies in China were mass-producing fake rice made from plastic, which of course can cause serious digestive issues (where is our Federal Trade Commission, by the way?), and may even be fatal if consumed daily.

The site also reported on 10 other foods made in China, which have serious contamination and health problems, and should be avoided at all times:

Tilapia: An astounding 80 percent of tilapia, a whitefish that is sold in the U.S., comes from China. These fish are bottom feeders anyway, and eat nearly anything. With so much water pollution in China, eating anything raised in contaminated water would not be safe, of course. In addition, one study says that tilapia is less healthy than bacon, the site reported.

Cod: Another popular whitefish in the U.S., about 50 percent of cod consumed in America comes from China. Again, there is the water pollution and feeding issue; and what’s more, there are not many restrictions in China for exporting these kinds of products.

Apple juice: Again, about half of all apple juice sold in America comes from China (because it’s cheaper, supposedly). Chinese farmers are known to use harmful (to humans and the environment) herbicides on the food they grow, and this even includes herbicides that the government has banned (so they must be bad). Your best bet here is to make your own apple juice at home from locally grown organic crops.

Processed mushrooms: More than one-third of the processed mushrooms sitting on grocery shelves in the U.S. – 34 percent – come from China. Like the apples, it’s hard to tell where and how the mushrooms are grown. To be safe, buy local, organic mushrooms, or buy a trusted American or Canadian brand.

Garlic: An alarming 31 percent of garlic in American grocery stores come from China, and these are grown using herbicides containing, mainly, methyl bromide. That’s just not safe.

Chicken: In 2013, the website noted, the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture approved the sale of Chinese chicken in the U.S. (as if there isn’t enough chicken grown domestically). As with fish, the manner in which Chinese chickens are fed is highly questionable – and unsafe. China is also often plagued with viruses like the avian flu and other food-borne illnesses.

Plastic rice: This one is hard to imagine since rice is a staple in Asia. However, major amounts of fake rice have been seized by authorities in China, and reports say that the product is actually a mixture of potatoes combined with synthetic resin. The goal, of course, is to make money; scam artists have been imitating a popular form of Chinese rice known as “Wuchang,” a rice that remains hard after boiling. But long-term consumption of this food can cause cancer, the website noted.

Black pepper (mud): One vendor in China was caught selling mud as “black pepper.” This is a local problem, but you never know.

Industrial salt: Like pepper-mud, this, too, is a localized problem, but it seems as though industrial salt is making its way to Chinese tables. But in reality, any salt from China could contain an industrial mix, which can contribute to high blood pressure and an added risk of heart attack and stroke.

Learn more:  http://www.naturalnews.com/053914_China_toxic_chemicals_food_ingredients.html#ixzz48DE1HaHO

TYRANNY: Michelle Obama Goes Too Far, Bans One of America’s Favorite Cereals

 

If you thought first lady Michelle Obama’s lunch programs couldn’t get any worse, think again.

New rules brought about by Obama’s lunch legislation ban popular cereals children love in daycare centers across the country. Even worse, childcare centers will not be allowed to serve fried food, they will only be allowed to serve juice once a day and will be encouraged not to add honey to a child’s serving of yogurt, according to the Washington Free Beacon.

The new rules, which go into effect in 60 days, also place strict limits on the amount of sugar in cereals served at childcare and adult day care centers. Breakfast cereals cannot contain more than 6 grams of sugar per dry ounce, according to the regulation. According to that rule, Lucky Charms, Trix, Cocoa Puffs, Cap’n Crunch and Frosted Flakes will no longer be options.

Cereals that do meet sugar restrictions include Cheerios, Puffed Rice, Fiber One, and All-Bran. Needless to say, the choices for cereals just got bland and boring for kids everywhere.

The regulation is the final update in the meal pattern requirements for the Child and Adult Care Food Programthat aims to align the programs with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans as required by the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010.

While the Obama administration said the new regulations were designed to be “cost-neutral,” many in the food service industry “voiced concerns that some aspects of the proposed rule would limit food choices, increase costs, and prohibit serving nutritious foods that may be more palatable to children.”

And it just keeps getting worse.

It’s truly shameful that someone who lives so lavishly off tax dollars and puts her own children in a private school, which is not subject to federal government rules, can control such a pathetic lunch program for our kids.

It needs to stop.

 

The November election cannot some fast enough.

BREAKING NEWS: Poland Becomes 14th European Nation to Officially Ban GMOs

Continuing a trend of GMO bans sweeping across Europe, the nation of Poland has officially announced its decision to join 13 other nations so far in excluding Monsanto’s controversial crops from its nation’s farmland.

The announcement came via Informacyjna Agencja Radiowa (IAR) – a press agency working with Polskie Radio in Poland, according to this article published by Radio Poland.

Poland will now “opt out” of growing GMOs, with a specific focus on Monsanto’s genetically modified maize, which many countries fear will contaminate its natural crops if allowed to grow within their borders.

Opposition to genetically engineered foods has been strong in Europe for decades and has resulted in mass protests including widespread participation in previous incarnations of the March Against Monsanto movement.

Poland Becomes 14th Nation to Opt Out

The announcement is being celebrated by the GMO free and organic movement, but it doesn’t necessarily come as a surprise based on what’s been happening across Europe.

Poland is now the 14th nation to exercise a ban on GMOs, joining Slovenia, Serbia, Croatia, Latvia, Italy, Germany, Scotland, Wales, Lithuania, Austria, Ireland, France, and Greece.

The final opt-out decision date for the remaining European countries is October 3.

The Polish people have long been opposed to GMOs, and that opposition came to a head earlier this year as Polish farmers protested in the streets, eventaking to their tractors and shutting down motorways to send a message about foreign influences taking over their industry while also showing their disapproval of GMO crops.

The country is already among numerous European nations that prohibit GMOs, but this announcement makes it official that Monsanto’s genetically engineered crops will not be allowed in Poland moving forward.

Another Major Food Company Announces Nationwide GMO Labeling

Spring may have only just begun, but the food industry has summer on the mind. In July, Vermont’s mandatory GMO labeling law will go into effect, and with a federal legislative solution looking less likely, companies are trying to figure out how to respond to the new standards. Increasingly, it looks like many in the industry may opt to label GMOs nationwide.

The candy company Mars is following General Mills’ and Campbell’s actions as the new standards loom. “Mars is introducing clear, on-pack labeling on our products that contain GM ingredients nationwide,” ahead of the Vermont regulations kicking in on July 1, the company wrote in a blog post published on its website Friday. In February, the company announced that it would remove artificial colors from its products, including brightly hued M&Ms.

“We are confident that by labeling genetically engineered ingredients, Mars, General Mills, Campbell’s and other companies will maintain the trust of Americans who want the right to know whether their food contains GMOs,” Scott Faber, senior vice president of government affairs with the Environmental Working Group, said in a statement. “As more companies take this step, we hope Congress will see the benefit of crafting a national GMO labeling solution that works for both industry and consumers.”

But if the outcome for consumers is the same in all three cases—GMO ingredients labeled on products nationwide—that isn’t the case on the legislative front. While Campbell’s is supporting mandatory GMO labeling on the federal level, General Mills has made it clear in an interview with Politico that it continues to support a voluntary federal label standard along the lines of what’s proposed in the so-called DARK Act. As a member of the Grocery Manufacturers Association, Mars has also been involved in lobbying for a voluntary federal standard for GMO labeling.

In light of the labeling announcement, “Mars supports efforts to find a single, national GMO labeling definition,” company spokesman Jonathan Mudd wrote in an email to TakePart. “We want to avoid a 50-state patchwork of different requirements.”

When asked whether the company would support a federal mandatory labeling standard, such as the one proposed by Oregon Sen. Jeff Merkley, Mudd said, “We can live with mandatory on-pack labeling as envisioned under the Merkley bill.  However, we think the best course is to go ahead and let the Vermont law come into effect, allow companies to label accordingly, and then ask the USDA to come up with a national definition and a national disclosure system.”

Mandatory labeling has broad support from consumers, with more than 90 percent of Americans saying that products made with genetically engineered ingredients should be labeled as such. At the same time, there’s a lot of misunderstanding about the most basic elements of the issue, such as what GMOs are and whether or not they present a health risk. According to a Pew survey published last year, for example, 67 percent of respondents said that scientists did not have a clear understanding of the health concerns that GMOs present, and there is no sound scientific research linking the consumption of genetically engineered foods with any health programs.

While the political question of labeling GMO ingredients remains open, the Vermont law has shown that regional regulation can have a major influence. Only 626,000 people live in Vermont, but these huge companies don’t want the financial and procedural burden of having to label only products that will be sold in the state. So a company such as Mars, which makes around $11 billion annually on domestic sales, will change its labeling across the board. With the DARK Act recently voted down in the Senate and more states considering their own laws, it seems likely that other companies will follow these three and adopt GMO labels for products nationwide.

Half of Americans’ calories come from ‘ultra-processed’ foods

WEDNESDAY, March 9, 2016 — More than half of the average American diet is composed of so-called ultra-processed foods, a new study finds.

And these foods make up 90 percent of the excess sugar calories that Americans consume, the researchers reported.

Ultra-processed foods are concoctions of several ingredients, including salt, sugar, oils and fats. They also contain chemicals not generally used in cooking, such as flavorings, emulsifiers and other additives designed to mimic real foods, the researchers said.

“Decreasing the consumption of ultra-processed foods may be an effective way of reducing the excessive added sugar intake in the U.S.,” said lead researcher Euridice Martinez Steele. She’s from the department of nutrition in the School of Public Health at the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil.

Ultra-processed foods include sodas, sweet or savory packaged snacks, candy and desserts, packaged baked goods, instant noodles and soups and reconstituted meat products, such as chicken and fish nuggets, she said.

By contrast, “processed” foods are foods made with added salt, sugar or other substances normally used in food to unprocessed or minimally processed foods, such as canned foods or simple breads and cheese, the study authors said.

Too much sugar increases the risk for weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and tooth decay, Steele said.

“There is one relatively simple way to avoid excessive added sugar — not replacing real food, such as minimally processed foods and freshly prepared dishes and meals, with ultra-processed food and drink products,” she said.

In other words, drink water, pasteurized fresh milk and freshly squeezed fruit juices. And don’t drink soft drinks, sweetened milk drinks and reconstituted, flavored fruit juices.

People should avoid products that don’t require preparation, such as packaged soups, instant noodles, prepared frozen dishes and sandwiches, cold cuts and sausages, ready-to-eat sauces and cake mixes, Steele said.

The report was published online Wednesday in the journal BMJ Open.

The researchers reviewed information from more than 9,000 people. They all took part in the 2009-10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Study volunteers provided information about their diets.

The researchers found that added sugars make up more than 1 in 5 calories in the average ultra-processed food product. That’s as much as eight times higher than the calories from added sugars found in other foods, Steele said.

The recommended upper limit of calories from sugar is 10 percent of daily calories, the researchers noted. In people who ate the most ultra-processed food, more than 80 percent exceeded the upper limit of sugar.

Only people who ate the least ultra-processed foods had below the recommended levels of sugar, the researchers said.

“What many consumers do not realize is that added sugars come in many forms in many highly processed foods that include desserts and sweets, but that also include foods like sausages, cereal bars, ketchup, French fries, salad dressings and frozen pizzas,” said Samantha Heller. She’s a senior clinical nutritionist at New York University Medical Center in New York City.

This survey highlights the extraordinary amount of ultra-processed foods in the American diet, and the over-the-top amount of sugar and salt and fat found in these foods, she said.

One serving of a frozen French bread pizza contains 830 milligrams of salt, four different kinds of added sugars, trans fats and 21 grams of total fat, Heller pointed out.

“Another, more nefarious and insidious problem lurks in these foods as well,” she said. “Ultra-processed foods are chemically designed by the food companies to induce cravings for those foods, and sugar, fat and sodium are a big part of those formulas.”

The only way to break the chemical food cravings, and slash the intake of chemicals, calories, added sugars, fat and sodium, is to make more food at home from scratch, Heller said.

“If you made your own homemade French bread vegetable pizza, which would not take much time, you would use about 15 unprocessed or minimally processed ingredients, compared with the more than 60 ultra-processed ingredients and chemicals in the frozen food version,” she said.

Homemade pizza would likely have almost no added sugar, a fraction of the salt, no trans fats and much less fat overall, Heller said.

“You will also know exactly what’s in the dish you and your family are eating for dinner tonight,” she said. “A bit of planning and a pantry stocked with healthy foods goes a long way to saving time, money and, more importantly, your health.”

Cavemen From 400,000 Years Ago Ate Better Meals Than You Do

Neanderthal chefs had a fine-dining streak.

Tel Aviv University archaeologists discovered burn-marked 400,000-year-old tortoise shells and bones in Israel’s Qesem Cave, a site that was occupied by humans hundreds of thousands of years ago. The team, led by archaeologist Ran Barkai, published a paper indicating the shells were cut open in a way consistent with “cooking in the shell, defleshing and direct percussion to access the visceral content,” which is the academic-paper way to say, “cut ’em and cook ’em.”

But tortoises aren’t big enough to support an entire diet, unless Ug and Gork were spending the whole day shucking tortoise shells and talking about life. Therefore, Barkai deduced, they must have been part of a larger meal, along with what prehistoric dental records show to be plenty of vegetables too.

“Now we know they ate tortoises in a rather sophisticated way,” Barkai said, according to CBC News. “It would have been a supplement — an appetizer, dessert or a side dish — to the meat and fat from large animals.”

Around this time, we know Neanderthals made wooden spears to hunt and kill large animals, in some cases horses. The tortoise discovery is a eureka moment in Barkai’s ongoing research into how hominids filled the gaps in diet when there was nothing huge to kill.

But there’s an unfortunate twist: Thanks to Barkai’s findings, we now know early man occasionally had a meat appetizer before the meat main course, which is a bummer, because it only reinforces believers in the questionable paleo diet, which has people eating little else but seeds and meat to mimic paleolithic man.

You Do Not Need a Cure for Diabetes, Do It By Yourself

Yearly diabetes destroys many lives, although this disease is incurable there are ways to control and hold it in the normal range.

Diabetes is not just a death threat to all un-sound mind, but causes many difficulties.For a person it is important to keep blood sugar normal in order to continue to function normally after the development of this hellish disease.

You-do-not-need-a-cure-for-diabetes-do-it-by-yourself

This can be done with regular and healthy food, medication and traditional medicine which helps a lot and relieves unpleasant symptoms.

For this medication you will need only two ingredients.

Ingredients:

300 grams of celery root

6 lemons

Preparation:

Grate the cleaned celery root and put it in enameled pot which must not be damaged. Add freshly squeezed lemon juice in the pot also. Close the pot and place it in another big pot with water. Cook until the water in the lower pot starts to boil.

When it boils, reduce the heat and simmer on very low temperature for 2 hours. After coking remove the pots from the fire and don’t open them until they are completely cool, then pour the medication into a jar. Close the jar and place it in the refrigerator.

Usage: Drink one tablespoon in the morning on an empty stomach 30 minutes before breakfast.

This amount is sufficient for two months, after which many of you will normalize blood sugar.

Don’t Forget To Share With Your Friends And Family On Facebook, As You Might Help Someone In Need!

source:

http://www.healthylifevision.com

1 dead from listeria outbreak linked to Dole salads

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said one person died and about a dozen others were sickened from a listeria outbreak linked to packaged salads made at a Dole processing facility.

The salads were made in Springfield, Ohio, the CDC said. Illnesses were reportedin six states: Indiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania. Those sickened ranged in age from 3 to 83 years old, and included one woman who was pregnant.

The CDC said the packaged salads made by Dole are the likely source of the outbreak. The salads are sold under a number of different brand names, including:

  • Dole
  • Fresh Selections
  • Simple Truth
  • Marketside
  • The Little Salad Bar
  • President’s Choice
dole-manufacturing-code.jpg
The recall affects salads with a manufacturing code beginning with “A.”
CDC

The manufacturing code on the package starts with the letter “A,” as seen at left.

The CDC says customers should not eat those products.

Dole stopped all production at the Ohio facility on Thursday, the CDC said.

The link was determined through testing by the Ohio Department of Agriculture which identified listeria in a package of Dole brand Field Greens packaged salad from a retail location.

Symptoms of listeria include fever and muscle aches, sometimes preceded by diarrhea or other gastrointestinal symptoms. The CDC says it can be especially serious in pregnant women, raising the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, premature delivery, or life-threatening infection of the newborn. Adults 65 and older, and people with weakened immune systems, are also especially vulnerable.